12.What is meridian?
In Chinese medicine, meridian is the network of running the Qi and blood, connecting the Zang and Fu and the other parts, regulating the body function. Jing means the meridian and vessels. Luo means the collaterals and subcollaterals. Regular and complicated intersection of the meridians connects the five Zang and six Fu, limbs and all bones, five sensory organs and nine orifices, skin, muscles, tendons, bones and vessels and turns them into one whole body to guarantee the formal life activity.
13.What consists of the meridian?
The meridian consists of the meridian and vessels, collaterals and subcolaterals as well as their annexed structures. The meridian and the vessels are the longitudinal trunk line and the collaterals and subcolaterals are the branch network of the former whose physiological function is clinically called the meridian Qi of which can act as communicating the different parts of the body, running the Qi and blood, nurturing the Zang and Fu, responding and conducting, keeping and regulating the balance of the body.
The meridian can be divided into twelve regular meridians, which include three yin channels of hand( the lung channel of hand taiyin, the heart channel of hand shaoyin, the pericardium channel of hand jueyin), three yang channels of hand( the intestine channel of hand taiyang, the sanjiao channel of hand shaoyang, large intestine channel of hand yangming), three yin channels of foot( the spleen channel of foot taiyin, the kidney channel of foot shaoyin, the liver channel of foot jueyin) and three yang channels of foot( the bladder channel of foot taiyang, the gall bladder channel of foot shaoyang, the stomach channel of foot yangming) and eight extra meridians of which include the Du meridian, the Ren channel, the Chong meridian, the Dai meridian, the yinwei meridian, the yangwei meridian, the yinqiao meridian and yangqiao meridian.
The collaterals and subcollaterals consist of fifteen larger collaterals of which are the meridians branched out of the twelve meridians and run interior and exterior along with collaterals of ren meridian, du meridian, and larger collateral of spleen), minute collaterals of which is the branch of the larger collaterals, superficial collaterals of which are minute collaterals located at the surface of muscle. The annexed part of collaterals and subcollaterals consist of tendons, skins, branches of the twelve channels.
14.How is the theory of meridian doctrine applied in the Health Qi Gong?
According to the theory of Chinese medicine, all diseases result from the imperforation of the meridians. No pain will occur when the meridians and the circulation of Qi and blood is unblocked and vice versa. The blood will run smoothly under the condition of the heat and condense of the cold. Therefore unblocking the meridians is common precautions taken against diseases in the exercise. For example, minding on some acupoints or parts make it heat to dredge some meridians and nurture the corresponding Zang and Fu. In addition, the exercise can play a role in stretching, dragging, turning and kneading some acupoints and meridians to prevent the diseases as the meridian runs through the four limbs. The action is the same as for the four sets of the Health Qi Gong.
15.What consist of five Zang and six Fu?
It is the summarization of the visceral organs in the doctrine of visceral state in Chinese medicine. The five Zang is the most important system acting as producing and storing the essence including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Six Fu act as transporting, digesting the food and drink and discharging the waste including gall bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, Sanjiao and bladder.
16.What is main function of five Zang?
The heart is the master of visceral organs and in charge of the blood vessels and mind. It has its outward manifestation in the face or complexion and its specific opening in the tongue. Its corresponding secrete of body fluid is perspiration.
The liver is in charge of storing the blood and soothing the emotions and assisting the digestion and absorption of the drink and food as well as all the tendons. It has its outward manifestation in the nails and its specific opening in the eyes with tears as its corresponding body fluid.
The spleen is in charge of the transportation of the essence of drink and food and transmitting and distributing the fluids. It can govern and keep the blood and distribute the clear refined substance. It is also in charge of all the muscles. It has its outward manifestation in the lip and its specific opening in the mouth with saliva as its corresponding body fluid.
The lung, which is compared to a canopy, is in charge of respiration, keeps the pathway of air unobstructed and disseminates vital energy throughout, cleanses the inspired air and keeps the Qi flowing downward, opens up and regulates the water course. It has its outward manifestation in the skin and hair and its specific opening in the nose with nasal discharge as its corresponding body fluid.
The kidney stores the congenital and acquired essence and is in charge of the reproductive development, bone and marrow, and regulating the water and fluid metabolism and Qi transformation. It has its outward manifestation in hair and its specific opening in the ears and two lower orifices. Practicers of Qi Gong think highly of the kidney as it is the foundation of the inborn constitution. The essence of the kidney is divided into the kidney yin and kidney yang.
17.What is the main function of six Fu?
Six Fu consists of gall bladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, bladder and Sanjiao. The gall bladder, stomach, small intestine and large intestine are digestive organs. Bladder is urinary organ and Sanjiao is one specific Fu of which is only used in Chinese medicine with multiple functions.
Gall bladder has the relation of being interior and exterior with the liver and it is annexed to the liver and called the hollow organ containing refined juice as it stores the bile. Man with exuberant gallbladder Qi is courageous and man with deficient gallbladder Qi is timid and overcautious as it manages decision.
The stomach is interior-exterior relation with the spleen and in charge of the intake and digesting the food with its upper orifice called upper Wan, the middle part called the median Wan and the lower orifice called the lower Wan. It is preferable to descending and also called the sea of food and the foundation of the acquired constitution along with the spleen. It plays an important role in taking in the essence of food and drink and nurturing all the body.
The small intestine connects the stomach in the upper part and the large intestine in the lower and is in charge of separating purity from turbidity of which the purity is transported to the spleen and the turbidity is to the large intestine and bladder as the waste. The small intestine is interior-exterior relation with the heart and can be affected by the disorder of it.
The large intestine is in charge of transporting the discharges and interior-exterior relation with the lung. Dysfunction of transportation is likely to result in the diarrhea, dysentery, constipation and dry stool. Disorder of the lung is able to affect the large intestine.
The bladder is in charge of the body fluid metabolism along with the lung, spleen, kidney and Sanjiao and storing and discharging the urine. It has the interior-exterior relation with the kidney.
The Sanjiao is the passage of the energy Qi and body fluids with the function of transporting them. Qi deficiency in some parts is likely to result from the obstruction of the Sanjiao. The dysfunction of Sanjiao transporting the body fluids is likely to cause the disorders of oliguria and edema etc.
18.How to comprehend the basic meaning of the essence, Qi and spirit?
The essence, Qi and spirit are three treasures of human body in Chinese medicine. All those nutrients and substances constructing the body are involved in the scope of the essence such as the blood, fluid, sperm, liquid, the skin and hair, tendons and bones, muscles etc with the yin characteristics. Qi is the active essential substance warming and nurturing the body and the basic dynamic power promoting the life activity. Spirit is dominating and embodying the life with the function of reining the essence and Qi. Its meaning is extensive including all activities of Zang and Fu, meridians, Qi, blood, fluids and their outer manifestations besides from the psychological activity.
19.How to comprehend the Qi and blood and fluid?
The Qi, blood and fluids run all over the body through the meridians to keep the life activity in Chinese medicine. Qi has multiple physiological function such as promoting, warming, guarding, holding and transforming of Qi characterized as yang. Xue is basically the blood itself with the main function of nurturing and enriching the body. The fluids is generalized concept of all normal liquid inside the body including the inner body fluids of visceral organs and all normal secretions. Its main physiological function is to enrich the skin and hair, orifices such as eyes, nose and lips etc. It is closely relative with the health, weakness and diseases as it is the basic substance constituting the blood.
20.What can the exercise of the Health Qi Gong do for the Qi, blood and fluids?
The exercise can strengthen the waist and kidney to play a role in refining, nurturing and holding the essence. It can enhance the production and transportation of vital Qi to have got enough rest for the brain and body and the health effect of balancing the yin and yang. It can improve the activities of all systems including the nerve, respiration, circulation, digestion, motion, uropoiesis, reproduction and endocrine and turn them into the stable dynamic equilibrium, which can play an active in inducing, arousing and enhancing the vital Qi, as it can decrease the base metabolism and the oxygen consumption and increase the energy storage. Therefore, the practicer is able to rid of the diseases by ways of running the Qi in the opinion of the ancient people.
21.What are outer cold caused by yang deficiency and inner heat caused by yin deficiency? What can the exercise of the Health Qi Gong do for the condition?
Generally, the body is in a state of balance of yin and yang, integrity of figure and spirit, and whole harmony. Diseases will ensue as soon as the balance is destroyed. Yang deficiency is a state of decline of vital gate-fire, insufficiency of vital yang and decline of function and manifested as chilliness, pale facial complexion, lassitude, loose stool, clear urination, deep, thready and feeble pulse. The practicer should mainly do the active Gong of which can produce the Qi and yang to dredge the meridians.
Yin deficiency is insufficiency of yin fluids of which can result in the water being unable to press the fire to cause the inner heat. It commonly manifests as baking-fire, being fidgety, dry mouth, constipation, palpitation, insomnia with much dream. The practicer should do the quiet Qi Gong to increase and nurture the yin and fluids and get the effect of ridding of the diseases and health-keeping through the exercise of combination of motion with quietness.
22.What is the Sanjiao in Chinese medicine?
Sanjiao is one specific word in Chinese medicine including the upper, middle and lower jiao and subject to six Fu. Generally, it is considered as one Fu containing all visceral organs as well as the basic concept dividing the part of the body, that is to say, the part over the diaphragm is upper jiao containing the heart, lung; the part between the level of the diaphragm and the umbilicus is middle jiao containing the spleen and stomach; the part below the umbilicus is the lower jiao containing the liver, kidney, bladder, small and large intestine etc. Its function is to dominate the Qi transformation and the passage of the nutrients and fluids.
23.What is six Yin in Chinese medicine?
Yin is over or excessive by word. The change of six kinds of climate including the wind, cold, summer, damp, dryness and fire in nature is called the six Qi in Chinese medicine. They are called the six Yin as soon as they become the etiological factors under the condition of abnormal and abrupt change. They are called the six evils when they attack the body and cause the exogenous diseases. The common characteristics of the diseases caused by the six evils are as follows: It has relation with the season; for example, there are more diseases caused by wind in the spring, summer-heat diseases in the summer, damp diseases in the long summer, dry diseases in the autumn, cold diseases in the winter; the six evils can simultaneously attack the body such as the wind and cold causing the common cold, the wind and damp causing the arthralgia, damp and heat causing the diarrhea, etc. The six evil can be transformed each other. For example, the cold evil can be turned into the heat evil inside the body; prolonged summer-heat can injure the yin due to the production of dryness. The common passage is from the surface of the skin and the mouth or nose. So we should guard the body from the invasion of the six evils according to the different seasons.
24.What do the seven emotions consist of?
The seven kinds of emotion of human body are called the seven emotions including happiness, anger, sorrow, anxiety, sad, horror and terror. Generally speaking, the change of emotion is psychological activity of which won’t cause diseases under the normal condition. Only sudden, drastic and prolonged bad emotion stimulation will result in the diseases when it is beyond the modulation of body.
Different emotional change will affect different organs just as it is recorded in Huangdi’s internal classics•plain questions•discussions of yin and yang classification: anger will injure the liver, happiness will injure the heart, anxiety will injure the spleen, sorrow will injure the lung and terror will injure the kidney. It is called internal injury of seven emotions as it directly injures the Zang and Fu.
25.What is the main mechanism of seven emotions injuring the five Zang? What does the exercise of the Health Qi Gong do for that?
Abnormal seven emotions mainly affect the activities of Qi to result in the disorder the Qi and blood circulation and abnormal ascending, descending, coming-in and going-out of Qi. Anger drives qi upward. Rage will cause the disorder of the soothing of liver Qi and result in the upper punch of blood and Qi of which will block the upper orifices and cause the coma. Over happiness will cause the scatter of the heart Qi, absentmindedness and abnormal mind. Over anxiety will cause the block of the middle Qi activity and result in the digestive dysfunction and insomnia. Over sorrow will cause low-spiritedness and the exhaustion of the lung Qi and result in fatigue and lassitude. Over horror or terror will cause the cave-in and weakened renal qi and result in urinary and fecal incontinence or even abnormal mind.
The exercise of the Health Qi Gong is able to keep the practicer calm, happy, open-minded and rid of the disturbance of abnormal seven emotions to enhance the health of the body and mind.
26.What are five kinds of strain and seven kinds of impairments?
Five kinds of strain means that prolonged watching will injure the blood, prolonged sleep will injure Qi, prolonged sitting will injure the muscles, prolonged standing will injure the bone and prolonged walking will injure the tendons written in Huang Di’s internal classics-the plain questions-the extrapolation of five Qi. Sometimes five kinds of strain still mean five kinds of strain of liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney of which is closely related with man’s seven motions. Seven kinds of impairments are generally thought to be satiation injuring spleen, rage causing Qi reverse to injure liver, overstrain weight lifting and prolonged sitting in the wet injuring the kidney, chill and cold drink injuring the lung, sorrow and over-thinking injuring the heart, wind, rain, cold and dampness injuring the body, great fear injuring the mind recorded in the general treatise on the etiology and symptomology of diseases. However, it is also thought to be that over seven motions injure five Zang.
27.Why is it said that prolonged watch will injure the blood?
The so-called prolonged watch injuring the blood means that prolonged watching something will not only result in the fatigue of both eyes and vision reducing but also the damage of blood. According to the theory of Chinese medicine, Liver can store the blood and regulate the blood volume to nurture the whole body and suppress the flare-up of liver Yang; in the meantime, it can regulate the distribution of different parts of body and transport the blood to where it is needed. It is thought to be that the outer connected orifice of liver are eyes and eyes are the outer demonstration of liver as the meridian of liver is connected with the eyes and man’s vision depends on the soothing of liver Qi and nurture of liver blood. Therefore the overstrain of eyes will injure the liver and further affect the regulation of the blood. That is why prolonged watch will injure the blood.
28.Why is it said that prolonged sleep will injure Qi?
The so-called prolonged sleep injuring Qi means that lying in bed for a long time will result in mind stupor and dispiritedness and Qi scattering unable to transform into the spirit for a longer time. That is why prolonged sleep will injure Qi.
29.Why is it said that prolonged sitting will injure the muscles?
Prolonged sitting injuring the muscles means that immobility with sitting for a long time will wound the muscles and textures in the neck and back etc to result in the local fatigue. As muscles in the neck and back must keep tension to balance the body when man is seated, sitting for a long time will certainly cause the fatigue of muscles in neck and back. In addition, that blood circulation in the muscle texture pressed by body and limbs is bad will result in the regression of their function even the muscle wasting in the long run.
30.Why is it said that prolonged standing will injure the bone?
Prolonged standing injuring the bone means that bones of human body will strain because of supporting the body with immobility of long standing. Generally, moderate standing will be helpful to increase the density and enhance the rigidity of bone. That bone can’t be stimulated by propping without some standing activity will be likely to cause osteoporosis. But long standing will cause the fatigue of muscles propping the bone and result in the development malformation or dysfunction of bones or joints.
31.Why is it said that prolonged walk will injure the tendons?
Prolonged walk injuring the tendons means the prolonged walk will cause the injury of tendons and muscles. As walk mainly depends on the pull of tendons and muscles for the bones, prolonged walk will be likely to cause the injury or strain of the soft tissue such as ligament, tendons and fascia etc around the joints of lower limbs.
32.What is the relation of five strains with seven emotions?
Five strains are separately overstrain of the liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney. Seven emotions are seven kinds of feeling display including happiness, anger, sorrow, anxiety, sadness, horror and terror. There is close relation between the five strains and seven emotions of which means that roused seven emotions will cause the injury of five Zang. In the Chinese medicine, the activity of seven emotions will directly affect the five Zang. That is to say, anger is liable to cause the upward invasion of liver-Qi and pain and distension of head; happiness is liable to cause the scatter of the heart-Qi and absentmindedness; horror is liable to cause the entanglement of heart-Qi; sorrow and anxiety is liable to cause the stagnation of spleen-Qi and digestive dysfunction; sadness is liable to cause the exhaustion of lung-Qi and fatigue and short breath; terror is liable to cause the descending of kidney-Qi and unconsolidation of kidney-Qi.
33.What consists of the human body in anatomy?
The human body consists of the head, neck and nape, the trunk and four limbs.
34.What consists of the human body physiologically?
The body consists of nine systems including the locomotor system, alimentary system, respiratory system, circulation system, uropoiesis and reproduction system, nervous system, endocrine system, sensory organs and immune system.
35.What consists of the locomotor system and what is their function?
The locomotor system includes the bone, cartilage, joints, muscle, ligament and tendon etc of which constitute the basic sketch and can sustain and protect the visceral organs.
36.What consists the human alimentary system and what is their function?
The alimentary system is divided into the alimentary tract and digestive gland. The alimentary tract starts from the oral cavity and runs to the throat, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, and rectus and till the anus. The digestive canal includes salivary gland and many glandules in the liver, pancreas and the wall of alimentary tract. The basic function is to take in the food and decompose and absorb the nutrient and discharge the waste.
37.What consists of the respiratory system and what is their function?
The respiratory system consists of the air passage including nose, throat, larynx, trachea and bronchus and the lung and the assistor including the pleural membrane and pleural cavity. Its main function is to inhale the oxygen in the air and exhale the carbon dioxide inside the body.
38.What consists of the circulation system and what is their function?
The circulation system consists of the heart, artery, capillary vessel, vein and lymphatic vessel. Its main function is to transport the nutrient, oxygen and hormone to the organs and tissue for metabolism and discharge the metabolite and carbon dioxide through the lung, kidney and skin.
39.What consists of the nervous system in the body and what is their function?
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord and cranial nerve, spinal nerve and nerve ganglia annexed with the brain and spinal cord. It is the main system dominating the activity of other systems. Firstly, it control and regulate the activity of other organs and systems; in the meantime, it make the body reactive to the environment through the analysis and synthesis of the nervous system.
40.What consists of the uropoiesis and reproduction system and what is their function?
The uropoiesis and reproduction system consists of the kidney, ureter, bladder and urinary canal. Its main function of the uropoiesis system is to discharge the internal metabolites and the function of reproduction system is to multiply.
41.What consists of the endocrine system and what is their function?
The endocrine consists of those glands distributed all over the body and their function is to regulate the function of the organs, tissue and cells through the hormone and the relative substance secreted from the glands to keep the internal environment stable.
42.What consists of the sensory organs and what is their function?
The sensory organs are the specific organs connected with the sensory nerve ending and consist of the organ of vision, vestibulocochlear organ, organ of smell, organ of taste and skin as well. Their main function is to receive all the stimulus and transform it into the nerve impulse and transport to the nerve center through the sensory conduction passage to produce varieties of sense.
43.What consists of the immune system and what is their function?
The immune system consists of immune cells, which include lymphocyte, plasma cell and macrophage etc, lymphatic tissue and lymphatic organs. Lymphocyte include T cell, B cell and NK cell. The main function of the immune system is to produce the immune response reaction to educe the function of immune protection, immune surveillance and immune homeostasis through identifying the self and non-self.
Reference: Answers to the basic theoretical knowledge of the Health Qi Gong jsqg.sport.org.cn